DeGroot Games and Probabilistic Model Checking

Formal Analysis of DeGroot Influence Problems using Probabilistic Model Checking

Sotirios Gyftopoulos1, Pavlos S. Efraimidis1, Panagiotis Katsaros2

Dept. Electrical & Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace
67100 Xanthi, Greece
Email: {sgyftopo, pefraimi}

Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
54124 Thessaloniki, Greece



DeGroot learning is a model of opinion diffusion and formation in a social network. We examine the behavior of the DeGroot learning model when external strategic players that aim to influence the opinion formation process are introduced. More specifically, we consider the case of a single decision maker and that of two competing players, with a fixed number of possible influence actions for each of them. In the former case, the DeGroot model takes the form of a Markov Decision Process (MDP), while in the latter case it takes the form of a Stochastic Game (SG). These models are solved using probabilistic model checking techniques, as well as other solution techniques beyond model checking. The viability of our analysis is attested on a well known social network, the Zachary’s karate club. Finally, the evaluation of influence in a social network simultaneously with the decision maker’s cost is supported, which is encoded as a multi-objective model checking problem.


Benchmark suite

  1. The DeGroot Problem (DP)
  2. The DeGroot Influence Problem (DIP)
  3. The Constrained DeGroot Influence Problem (CDIP)
  4. The DeGroot Game (DG)